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  • Explore Your Body - Microbe Magic
    oxygenated blood blood without any oxygen but it does this on separate sides The left side of your heart collects oxygenated blood from your lungs This travels to your heart through your veins and into your left atrium It is then is pumped away from your heart by your left ventricle and goes through your arteries to the cells in your body The right side of your heart collects the deoxygenated blood from your body and pumps it to your lungs where it picks up oxygen in your lungs and is returned to your heart for the whole cycle to start again Like your veins your heart has valves to stop blood flowing in the wrong direction The valves are like little doors once the blood goes through they shut and stop the blood flowing backwards The valves that separate the atria from the ventricles are called the mitral and the tri cuspid valves The valves that stop the blood from flowing back into your heart are called the aortic and pulmonary valves If you listen to your heart beat using a stethoscope you would hear a lub dub sound This is made by the valves inside your heart opening and shutting as the blood flows through them When the mitral and tricuspid valves open and close you hear the lub sound When your blood leaves your heart the aortic and pulmonary valves open and close you hear the dub sound This is the sound of a healthy heart Heart beats are slower in adults than in children about 60 70 times per minute in adults but up to 90 times per minute when you are younger Did you know that you can measure how many times your heart beats You can find your pulse there is a cool pulse experiment on the Experiments page by pressing down firmly on the side of your neck or the inside of your wrist with two fingers you might have to try a couple of different places before you find this but it is there Can you feel a pulse like a light movement under your skin This is the blood moving through a large artery just under your skin You pulse rate is the same as your heart beat Count how many pulses you have in a minute this is your pulse and is the same as the number of times your heart beats in a minute Try doing this when you are sitting still and then immediately after you have done some exercise Do you feel your heart rate your pulse increase This means your heart is getting a work out and staying healthy as it pumps blood around your body more quickly Do you know what makes your heart pump blood around your body all day every day and every night Your heart is an involuntary muscle you cannot control it it works all by itself Your heart has a special group of cells that generate electrical signals These signals

    Original URL path: http://microbemagic.ucc.ie/explore_body/more_info/heart.html (2015-07-23)
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  • Explore Your Body - Microbe Magic
    into your arteries they expand and when the blood passes your artery contracts This is your pulse Your pulse rate is at the same rhythm as your heart beats so not only can you feel your blood flowing through your arteries you can measure your heart rate by taking your pulse There are lots of different types of arteries some as thick as your thumb and some smaller that a hair on your head As blood travels away from your heart your arteries get smaller and smaller When they are very small they are called arterioles and finally when they are really tiny they are called capillaries Capillaries are so small that blood can usually only get through them one cell at a time As each blood cell moves through your capillaries the oxygen carried by red blood cells is taken by your body s cells and exchanged for waste products like carbon dioxide which is removed by the blood The blood that is carried away from your heart by your arteries is bright red in colour This is because it is oxygenated it has lots of oxygen in it The oxygen is carried by haemoglobin in your red blood cells and when it gets to your capillaries this oxygen is given to every cell in your body There is an exception to this rule though your pulmonary artery one of the most important arteries in your body is a little different It carries de oxygenated blood blood with no oxygen in it away from your heart to your lungs pulmonary just means to do with your lungs Once your arteries become small enough to be called capillaries and the exchange of oxygen for carbon dioxide takes place your capillaries start to get bigger and become veins Veins bring blood

    Original URL path: http://microbemagic.ucc.ie/explore_body/more_info/arteries.html (2015-07-23)
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  • Explore Your Body - Microbe Magic
    heart Your veins have three different layers a very tough outer layer a layer of smooth muscle in the middle and a layer of epithelial cells very smooth cells that form a lining on the inside This inside layer is very smooth so that there are no humps or bumps to block your blood as it flows through your arteries The middle of your arteries the hollow bit of the tube is called the lumen Your veins have something your arteries do not have valves Valves are like little doors in your veins they close off after blood has passed through so that your blood can only flow towards your heart Your veins have valves so that your blood will only flow in one direction it cannot flow backwards You have different numbers of valves in different areas of your body because different areas of your body are under different levels of pressure The veins in the lower half of your body have more valves because they have further to go to get to your heart and they have to work against gravity Sometimes these valves stop working and blood does flow the wrong way This is a condition called varicose veins and it can be painful You can see varicose veins appear on the legs of people who are affected The blood in your veins is a dark red almost purple or blue colour because it does not carry any oxygen it is de oxygenated The oxygen has already been exchanged for waste products like carbon dioxide from your cells The smallest veins are called venules and these are connected to your capillaries Your capillaries are where the oxygen from the oxygenated blood carried in your arteries is exchanged for the waste products like carbon dioxide Once your veins

    Original URL path: http://microbemagic.ucc.ie/explore_body/more_info/veins.html (2015-07-23)
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  • Explore Your Body - Microbe Magic
    the space for your lungs smaller At the same time the muscles between your ribs your intercostal muscles relax and air is pushed out of your lungs To feel this happen put your hand on your chest and take a deep breath Can you feel your chest get much bigger as you inhale and smaller as you exhale You lungs look like sponges on the outside but inside they are a whole network of pipes and tubes Air comes from your nose and mouth down your trachea your windpipe This breaks into two main tubes called the bronchi one of which goes to your right lung the other of which goes to your left lung Each bronchus one of the bronchi is like the branch of a tree it has lots of little twigs coming from it These are called bronchioles and they are about as wide as a hair Right at the end of the bronchioles are your alveoli your air sacs They are so tiny that almost 600 million fit into you lungs Each one of these is covered in absolutely tiny tubes called capillaries which is where red blood cells one cell at a time swap the oxygen you inhale for the carbon dioxide waste you want to get rid of Your lungs allow you to do more than just breathe without your lungs you couldn t talk or sing At the very top of your trachea is your larynx sometimes called your voicebox that contains your vocal cords These make sounds as the air from your lungs makes them vibrate If you blow out a lot of air from your lungs you will make a big sound like a shout Take a big breath and try to count as high as you can in a normal

    Original URL path: http://microbemagic.ucc.ie/explore_body/more_info/lungs.html (2015-07-23)
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  • Explore Your Body - Microbe Magic
    these is covered in absolutely tiny tubes called capillaries which is where red blood cells one cell at a time swap the oxygen you inhale for the carbon dioxide waste you want to get rid of Your lungs allow you to do more than just breathe without your lungs you couldn t talk or sing At the very top of your trachea is your larynx sometimes called your voicebox that contains your vocal cords These make sounds as the air from your lungs makes them vibrate If you blow out a lot of air from your lungs up through your trachea you will make a big sound like a shout Take a big breath and try to count as high as you can in a normal voice What number do you reach before you have to take another breathe Now try it again but shout the numbers What happens It takes lots more air to shout so you probably won t get as far Your lungs are very precious Your body tries to protect them as best it can it has tiny hairs called cilia inside your nostrils that trap and small bits of dust and some microbes Anything that doesn t get trapped there can get stuck in the mucus on the inside of your trachea There are lots of things you can do to keep your lungs healthy The most important one is to exercise every day This makes the muscles around your lungs work harder and makes your lungs fitter It s a very bad idea to breathe in things that can harm your lungs like smoke chemicals or things like glue If you are using glue or if your parents are using things like paint or chemical cleaners at home remember to open a window and

    Original URL path: http://microbemagic.ucc.ie/explore_body/more_info/windpipe.html (2015-07-23)
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  • Explore Your Body - Microbe Magic
    of pipes and tubes Air comes from your nose and mouth down your trachea your windpipe This breaks into two main tubes called the bronchi one of which goes to your right lung the other of which goes to your left lung Each bronchus one of the bronchi is like the branch of a tree it has lots of little twigs coming from it These are called bronchioles and they are about as wide as a hair Right at the end of the bronchioles are your alveoli your air sacs They are so tiny that almost 600 million fit into you lungs Each one of these is covered in absolutely tiny tubes called capillaries which is where red blood cells one cell at a time swap the oxygen you inhale for the carbon dioxide waste you want to get rid of Your lungs are very precious Your body tries to protect them as best it can it has tiny hairs called cilia inside your nostrils that trap and small bits of dust and some microbes Anything that doesn t get trapped there can get stuck in the mucus on the inside of your trachea There are lots of things you can do to keep your lungs healthy The most important one is to exercise every day This makes the muscles around your lungs work harder and makes your lungs fitter It s a very bad idea to breathe in things that can harm your lungs like smoke chemicals or things like glue If you are using glue or if your parents are using things like paint or chemical cleaners at home remember to open a window and get as much fresh air into the room as possible Normally you don t have to think about breathing because it is an

    Original URL path: http://microbemagic.ucc.ie/explore_body/more_info/air_sacs.html (2015-07-23)
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  • Explore Your Body - Microbe Magic

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    Original URL path: /explore_body/more_info/diaphragm.html (2015-07-23)


  • Explore Your Body - Microbe Magic
    mirror in a brightly lit room Close your eyes really tightly and count to 10 When you open your eyes you should see you pupils get much bigger and then return to a smaller size as they get used to the change in the level of light The parts of the eye that you cannot see are very important Your lens focuses light onto your retina which is like a cinema screen at the very back of your eye It works like the lenses on a pair of glasses and can changes the direction of light as it goes into your eye The very strong ciliary muscles in your iris change the shape of your lens When they squeeze tight your lens gets all squashed and you can see things that are close to you When the ciliary muscles relax your lens gets thinner and you can see things that are far away Isn t that clever Your eye is like a camera you point it at something you want to see and it takes a picture Instead of printing a picture like a camera when light goes through your lens an image of the thing you are looking at is printed on your retina which sends signals to your brain to tell you what you are looking at Your retina has two different types of cells that help your brain figure out what you are looking at There are about 120 million rods in each of your retinas They see black white and grey and help you to see in the dark Rods also help you to tell what shape something is There are much fewer cones in your eye about 7 million in each eye Cones work in the light and tell you what colour something is There are three types of cones that see red green or blue colours Together with the rods they turn whatever you are looking at into signals for your brain The spot in your retina where the signal from your rods and cones is sent to your brain is called your blind spot There are no rods or cones here so you don t have an image on this part of your retina Your optic nerve carries the messages from your rods and cones to your brain and your brain figures out what the image is This all happens too quickly for us to notice it all happens immediately and we don t notice all the different parts of the eye working Your eye is about the same size and shape as a table tennis ball but what keeps it from getting squashed There are two different types of liquid in your eye The aqueous humour fills up the space around your lens and it looks and feels just like water The vitreous humour fills up the space inside your eyeball This is thicker like a jelly and it makes sure that your eye stays the shape it should be Your eyes

    Original URL path: http://microbemagic.ucc.ie/explore_body/more_info/eyes_sight.html (2015-07-23)
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