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  • Explore Your Body - Microbe Magic
    they find They are phagocytic cells that gobble up and dissolve away the invaders or damaged cells Neutrophils these patrol your body finding and destroying invaders One type of leukocyte has a job that is vital to your health your Bcells make antibodies When your body sees a microbe for the first time it does all it can to fight it Sometimes you don t notice that a microbe has invaded other times you may get a little sick but when you recover you have antibodies against that microbe in your body If that microbe tries to invade your body again the antibodies are ready and waiting They remember how to fight the microbe and quickly destroy it Your body will pull out all the stops and will even make more antibodies all to make sure you don t feel sick Your body is invaded by microbes thousands of times each day but the antibodies of your immune system protect you as much as they can If you have antibodies for a particular microbe it means that you are immune to that microbe and won t get the disease it causes Your body makes antibodies if you have been sick with a disease or if you have been vaccinated When you are vaccinated against a particular microbe the doctor will give you a tiny piece of that microbe that is dead or has had the dangerous part removed so that is safe It is enough microbe to make sure your immune system would recognise it if it saw it again but not so much that you will get sick Your body makes antibodies to the vaccine and you are then protected if that microbe ever tries to get past your first line of defence again Your immune system is very

    Original URL path: http://microbemagic.ucc.ie/inside_guts/more_info/antibodies.html (2015-07-23)
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  • All About Microbes - Microbe Magic
    are several thousand different types of viruses which use plants animals or even you as a host Once a virus gets inside its host it uses the hosts own cells to grow and make copies of itself When a virus gets into your body and sees a cell it likes it latches on and either injects its genes into your cell or your cell swallows it up The virus then takes over the parts that make your cell work so it can make more copies of itself These copies are identical to the first virus and usually so many are made that your cell bursts The new viruses spread to the cells next door and then the cells next to these infecting your body bit by bit Just one virus in your body can make thousands of copies of itself and make you very sick Viruses do lots of damage to their host and they damage normal healthy cells causing disease Some viruses cause diseases you will have heard of like measles chickenpox and of course the flu The flu influenza is one of the most famous viral diseases in the world It affects your respiratory system and gives you cough sore throat runny nose headache fever fatigue and pain The flu is much more severe that a cold which is also caused by a virus although sometimes people do call a cold the flu If the flu isn t treated it can lead to respiratory breathing difficulties like bronchitis or pneumonia which is very dangerous in the very young older people or people who are sick with something else already Scientists now know much more about how viruses like the flu work and viruses really are very clever They can change themselves mutate very quickly so as soon as

    Original URL path: http://microbemagic.ucc.ie/about_microbes/more_info/viruses_work.html (2015-07-23)
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  • Explore Your Body - Microbe Magic
    you may not notice it Your internal organs like your intestines and liver produce heat as they work Sweating is your body s way of getting rid of the extra heat You only really notice it on a very hot day or if you add extra heat like when you work your muscles when you exercise or if you are nervous scared or excited You will notice that you sweat more in some places like under your arms your armpits This can sometimes smell but it isn t the sweat that makes the smell Bacteria on your skin and on the small hairs that will grow under your arms love your sweat They feed on your sweat and it is their waste products their poo that make the smell It is a very good idea to wash all of your body every day but to pay very close attention to areas like your armpits where you sweat a lot If you live in a cool climate when you sweat the water in your sweat evaporates in the heat from your body which helps you to cool down Apart from water you sweat contains salts and waste products which are removed

    Original URL path: http://microbemagic.ucc.ie/inside_guts/more_info/sweat.html (2015-07-23)
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  • Explore Your Body - Microbe Magic
    All fluid milk products and many foods made from milk are considered part of this food group Foods made from milk that retain their calcium content are part of the group while foods made from milk that have little to no calcium such as cream cheese cream and butter are not Most milk group choices should be fat free or low fat MILK CHEESE All fluid milk fat free skim low fat 1 reduced fat 2 whole milk flavored milks chocolate strawberry lactose reduced milks lactose free milks Milk based desserts Puddings made with milk ice milk frozen yogurt ice cream Hard natural cheeses cheddar mozzarella Swiss parmesan soft cheeses ricotta cottage cheese processed cheeses American Yogurt All yogurt Fat free low fat reduced fat whole milk yogurt Selection Tips Choose fat free or low fat milk yogurt and cheese If you choose milk or yogurt that is not fat free or cheese that is not low fat the fat in the product counts as part of the discretionary calorie allowance If sweetened milk products are chosen flavored milk yogurt drinkable yogurt desserts the added sugars also count as part of the discretionary calorie allowance For those who are lactose intolerant lactose free and lower lactose products are available These include hard cheeses and yogurt Also enzyme preparations can be added to milk to lower the lactose content Calcium fortified foods and beverages such as soy beverages or orange juice may provide calcium but may not provide the other nutrients found in milk and milk products Oils Oils are fats that are liquid at room temperature like the vegetable oils used in cooking Oils come from many different plants and from fish Some common oils are canola oil corn oil cottonseed oil olive oil safflower oil soybean oil sunflower oil Some oils are used mainly as flavorings such as walnut oil and sesame oil A number of foods are naturally high in oils like nuts olives some fish avocados Foods that are mainly oil include mayonnaise certain salad dressings and soft tub or squeeze margarine with no trans fats Check the Nutrition Facts label to find margarines with 0 grams of trans fat Most oils are high in monounsaturated or polyunsaturated fats and low in saturated fats Oils from plant sources vegetable and nut oils do not contain any cholesterol In fact no foods from plants sources contain cholesterol A few plant oils however including coconut oil and palm kernel oil are high in saturated fats and for nutritional purposes should be considered to be solid fats Solid fats are fats that are solid at room temperature like butter and shortening Solid fats come from many animal foods and can be made from vegetable oils through a process called hydrogenation Some common solid fats are butter beef fat tallow suet chicken fat pork fat lard stick margarine shortening Fruit Any fruit or 100 fruit juice counts as part of the fruit group Fruits may be fresh canned frozen or dried

    Original URL path: http://microbemagic.ucc.ie/healthy_living/more_info/food_pyramid.html (2015-07-23)
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  • Explore Your Body - Microbe Magic
    cell At the same time any carbon dioxide waste product that the red blood cell is carrying passes through the wall of the capillary and into your alveoli where it is just removed the next time you breathe out There are millions of red blood cells in every drop of your blood so there is always lots of oxygen and carbon dioxide being exchanged It s simple and very clever Your red blood cells have a chemical called haemoglobin that actually carries the oxygen around your body Haemoglobin contains iron and is what turns your blood a bright red colour when it is carrying oxygen When you red blood cells are not carrying oxygen but are carrying carbon dioxide your blood is a dark purple or even blue colour You can see this in some of your veins through your skin but as soon as your blood meets the air the oxygen that is in the air turns it bright red That s why if you ever have a cut your blood is bright red Red blood cells have a funny shape they are a biconcave disc that is they look kind of like a flat donut but without the

    Original URL path: http://microbemagic.ucc.ie/explore_body/more_info/red_cells.html (2015-07-23)
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  • Your Immune Responce -Your Immune System - Explore Your Body - Microbe Magic
    your immune system is already prepared and waiting if it comes back Click on Find Out More to learn about your super immune response Copyright Alimentary Pharmabiotic Centre Disclaimer Privacy Policy Terms Of Use Your mouth Your oesophagus Your stomach Your small intestine Your large intestine Your rectum anus Your blood How your blood clots Your white blood cells Your red blood cells Your platelets Your immune response Your antibodies

    Original URL path: http://microbemagic.ucc.ie/explore_body/defence_immune.html (2015-07-23)
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  • Explore Your Body - Microbe Magic
    them Apart from being very sticky platelets have other things that help them to make a clot They have chemicals that call out to other platelets to make sure they make a big enough clot and other chemicals to make sure the clot doesn t break up The mineral calcium vitamin K and a protein called fibrinogen also help the platelets to make a good clot so your skin can heal When the platelets reach the cut on your skin they mix with the fibrinogen and begin to break up Little threads called fibrin are made and these make a web like a spider s web that has gaps so tiny your other blood cells cannot get out and the bleeding stops When the web dries it goes hard and your skin heals underneath When your skin is totally healed the scab falls off Sometimes you get a blood clot inside that you can t see These can happen in blood vessel in older people and be very serious because they stop the blood flowing properly If you have a bad knock or bang against something hard your body can get a bruise which you will see as a black or blue or dark red mark on your skin This is a clot under that you can watch heal the colour will change to a yellow green colour and then just disappear What happens if your body is missing something that helps it clot Some boys suffer from a condition called haemophilia They are missing a part of their clotting mechanism and if they get a cut it can take a very long time for them to stop bleeding or they just keep on bleeding You cannot just keep bleeding if it is not stopped there is a point where

    Original URL path: http://microbemagic.ucc.ie/inside_guts/more_info/blood_clots.html (2015-07-23)
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  • All About Microbes - Microbe Magic
    home print disclaimer Copyright Alimentary Pharmabiotic Centre

    Original URL path: http://microbemagic.ucc.ie/inside_guts/more_info/cartoon1.html (2015-07-23)
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