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    have already been in place for integration such as institutions of practice oriented higher education Fachhochschulen 3 Investing in Knowledge Education Culture and Recreation will strengthen the knowledge base an undisputed intellectual asset which includes practical know how experience and skills to be furthered through instruments such as the Technology and Future Fund or the Vienna Education Network 400 compulsory schools are quipped with some 10 000 computers to form a single network Even though Vienna is known as a cultural city the Strategy Plan foresees even more the creation of an atmosphere for new and flexible initiatives Finally the commercialisation of leisure is a trend that requires careful control and management leisure centres may not destroy the urban flair 4 Enhancing the quality of the Natural and Urban Environment I have already spoken about it is important for the population and business community This includes the following measures an economical use of buildings and the promotion of areas of natural landscape for recreation According to opinion polls among foreign tourists over 50 come to Vienna to enjoy the architectural heritage Besides protecting this we encourage contemporary architecture as well 5 Last but not least and somehow summarizing the before mentioned foci is to maintain the high quality of life Vienna is committed to its integrative policy approach accomodating different generations cultures religions and ways of life A controlled immigration became the norm in all European countries The Vienna Integration Fund for instance as one of many initiatives to foster integration But also the soft urban renewal by integrating the local population has been very successful particularly in neighbourhoods where the population is rather poor old or marked by a high share of foreigners Soft urban renewal favours rehabilitation and renewal over demolition of old housing blocks A measure in

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    if we are to achieve any significant impact at a local community level which is where it is most required then we need an intensive effort to be made through the community and voluntary sector with the active assistance of the state Finally given that this conference was organised by the Dublin Employment Pact it is important to examine the implications for future work arising from globalisation Urbanisation in Dublin as elsewhere is being driven by what has been referred to as the new economy of cities In our post industrial society the development of the knowledge economy fuelled by the widespread use of new information and communications technologies is actually increasing the clustering of economic activity Cities with extensive pools of knowledge and skills and critical mass of ICT bandwidth are increasing their economic dominance Dublin s IFSC points to this However maintaining competitiveness and economic diversity is critical In the coming period successful cities may be defined as those with a diverse population and knowledge base and with the flexibility to adapt to new growth sectors in the economy Quality of life is also increasingly regarded as a critical component of regional economic competitive advantage particularly in the attraction and retention of skilled labour the main currency in the knowledge economy As Saskia Sassen has established social exclusion is a by product of the new economy of cities Just as the knowledge economy is reinforcing activity in urban areas poverty unemployment and social disadvantage are also concentrated in cities The polarisation of those who are valued in the new economy of cities and those who are denied access to opportunity is ever more acute This disparity is now greater in English and Irish cities than in the US This has a major implication for the future employment of residents of Dublin and particularly those in the most disadvantaged circumstances in relation to the labour market The employment trends in Dublin in recent years confirm the influence of globalisation 408 000 people were employed in the Dublin region in 1996 representing just below one third of all employment in Ireland The city is an integral part of the regional economy Whilst overall employment increased by more than 23 between 1986 1996 jobs in services grew by more than 32 the service sector now employs more than 77 of the workforce in the Dublin region Commerce insurance financial and business services and the professional services account for the majority of the growth Tourism contributing more than 500 million and 25 000 jobs to the Dublin economy in 1996 and retailing are also key sectors consumer spending is currently growing at a rate of 4 per annum Dublin is now one of the top visitor destinations in Europe However this change has also resulted in increased casualisation of work a large low wage sector and even the recent phenomenon of increased part time working by up to 70 of full time pupils in secondary schools surveyed by the pact The current

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    of Ireland indicating that the provision of employment in the GDA is disproportionately greater than for the rest of the country However the provision of new housing lags considerably behind the other economic criteria Compared to a growth rate of 7 1 between 1999 and 2000 for Ireland as a whole the number of new houses completed in the GDA experienced a decline of 6 7 from 10 035 to 9 405 dwellings completed The declining affordability of housing in the Greater Dublin Area is forcing house buyers to purchase in peripheral and Outer Leinster locations where house prices are more affordable Between 1994 and 2000 new house production increased by 192 in the Outer Leinster counties a rate over four times that of the GDA The proportion of total national housing output accounted for by the Dublin Region has sharply declined from 29 4 in 1994 to 18 9 in 2000 whilst the proportion accounted for by the Outer Leinster counties has increased from 10 1 to 16 during the corresponding period The first phase of the GEMACA II project involved the identification and mapping of the Functional Urban Region which can be broadly defined as the area surrounding a major metropolitan area containing at least 1 million inhabitants and functionally dependant on the central city Functional Urban Region of Dublin The Functional Urban Region of Dublin FUR extends c 45 kilometres from the centre of Dublin city but is irregular in morphology and extends beyond the average distance along major routes particularly along the Irish Sea coast see page 24 Based on data from the 1996 Census of Population the Functional Urban Region of Dublin has an area of 3 017 square kilometres a population of 1 304 456 persons and is comprised of 407 DEDs District Electoral

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    and the location of those jobs in high growth sectors It breaks the historic nexus that would have led to empowering workers and legitimates this break culturally Another localization which is rarely associated with globalization informalization re introduces the community and the household as an important economic space in global cities I see informalization in this setting as the low cost and often feminized equivalent of deregulation at the top of the system As with deregulation e g as in financial deregulation informalization introduces flexibility reduces the burdens of regulation and lowers costs in this case especially the costs of labor Informalization in major cities of highly developed countries whether new York London paris or Berlin can be seen as a downgrading of a variety of activities for which there is an effective demand in these cities but also a devaluing and enormous competition given low entry costs and few alternative forms of employment Going informal is one way of producing and distributing goods and services at a lower cost and with greater flexibility This further devalues these types of activities Immigrants and women are important actors in the new informal economies of these cities They absorb the costs of informalizing these activities See Sassen 1998 chapter 8 The reconfiguration of economic spaces associated with globalization in major cities has had differential impacts on women and men on male typed and female typed work cultures on male and female centered forms of power and empowerment The restructuring of the labor market brings with it a shift of labor market functions to the household or community Women and households emerge as sites that should be part of the theorization of the particular forms that these elements in labor market dynamics assume today These transformations contain possibilities even if limited for women s autonomy and empowerment For instance we might ask whether the growth of informalization in advanced urban economies reconfigures some types of economic relations between men and women With informalization the neighborhood and the household re emerge as sites for economic activity This condition has its own dynamic possibilities for women Economic downgrading through informalization creates opportunities for low income women entrepreneurs and workers and therewith reconfigures some of the work and household hierarchies that women find themselves in This becomes particularly clear in the case of immigrant women who come from countries with rather traditional male centered cultures There is a large literature showing that immigrant women s regular wage work and improved access to other public realms has an impact on their gender relations Women gain greater personal autonomy and independence while men lose ground Women gain more control over budgeting and other domestic decisions and greater leverage in requesting help from men in domestic chores Also their access to public services and other public resources gives them a chance to become incorporated in the mainstream society they are often the ones in the housheold who mediate in this process It is likely that some women benefit more

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    with responsibilities for linking transportation policy with planning and land use the role of economic forces which drive the urban economy is neglected The patterns of demand that transportation and planning policy tries to accommodate is directly generated by the flow and direction of investment and development It is also clear that the needs and demands of the urban economy and consumers needs to be given full weight alongside the views and inputs of the key providers of transport services This should ensure that decisions on development in this area are based upon the needs and emerging demands of the urban region rather that being dominated by the requirements and wishes of producers and providers of transport services It is to be hoped that such policy moves will develop and shift urban policy realities towards a more sustainable urban form Future Directions The case for an integrated regional approach to the management of the development of urban areas is well developed and reflected in new approaches to institutional structures promoted for the Greater Dublin Area The reasons for such an approach reflect the need of development policies to respond to such issues on the basis of functional urban regions rather than historic administrative boundaries The logic of such approaches apply not only to the public sector input in active urban management but to other interest groups business community groups etc The implementation of much needed improvements in the infrastructure of the city is assisted by an integrated decision making process supported by a broadly developed coalition of interest groups Fragmented interests defending narrow sectional interests can equally provide problems in the progress of the city European cities including Dublin are likely to retain their distinctive regional identities and this is likely to remain an essential part of their economic future The cultural heritage of such cities remains a vital part of the function of such cities with an obvious role in maintaining the tourism sector In addition such attributes form a critical part of cities such as Dublin s ability to attract other business sectors including financial services In conclusion the main focus for our debate on city futures should be on quality over quantity Essential improvements to the urban infrastructure are required to sustain the existing levels of economic activity The careful management of European capital cities such as Dublin provide a difficult challenge in combining the conservation of historic cores with the achievement of sustainable development patterns Appropriate urban management involves not only new development and expansion but often a more difficult task of improving the management and efficiency of the existing urban systems The creation of distinctive assets and urban qualities and the development of local alliances can assist and promote investment and development Aspects of policy which should not be neglected are the needs of established local business as well as newer mobile investment and the essential role of local economic development in maintaining the urban social fabric Replacing policies aimed at constraining Dublin s economic

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    in part the spaces of post colonialism and indeed contain conditions for the formation of a postcolonialist discourse See Hall 1991 King 1990 The large Western city of today concentrates diversity Its spaces are inscribed with the dominant corporate culture but also with a multiplicity of other cultures and identities The slippage is evident the dominant culture can encompass only part of the city And while corporate power inscribes these cultures and identities with otherness thereby devaluing them they are present everywhere For instance through immigration a proliferation of originally highly localized cultures now have become presences in many large cities cities whose elites think of themselves as cosmopolitan that is transcending any locality An immense array of cultures from around the world each rooted in a particular country or village now are reterritorialized in a few single places places such as New York Los Angeles Paris London and most recently Tokyo Immigration and ethnicity are too often constituted as otherness Understanding them as a set of processes whereby global elements are localized international labor markets are constituted and cultures from all over the world are deterritorialized puts them right there at the center of the stage along with the internationalization of capital as a fundamental aspect of globalization today Further this way of narrating the migration events of the post war era captures the ongoing weight of colonialism and post colonial forms of empire on major processes of globalization today and specifically those binding emigration and immigration countries While the specific genesis and contents of their responsibility will vary from case to case and period to period none of the major immigration countries are innocent bystanders The centrality of place in a context of global processes engenders a transnational economic and political opening in the formation of new claims and hence in the constitution of entitlements notably rights to place and at the limit in the constitution of citizenship The city has indeed emerged as a site for new claims by global capital which uses the city as an organizational commodity but also by disadvantaged sectors of the urban population frequently as internationalized a presence in large cities as capital I see this as a type of political opening that contains unifying capacities across national boundaries and sharpening conflicts within such boundaries Global capital and the new immigrant workforce are two major instances of transnationalized categories that have unifying properties internally and find themselves in contestation with each other inside global cities Global cities are the sites for the over valorization of corporate capital and the devalorization of disadvantaged workers The leading sectors of corporate capital are now global in their organization and operations And many of the disadvantaged workers in global cities are women immigrants people of color Both find in the global city a strategic site for their economic and political operations The linkage of people to territory as consitutted in global cities is far less likely to be intermediated by the national state or national culture

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    share of the disadvantaged and are one of the key sites for their devalorization This joint presence happens in a context where 1 the transnationalization of economies has grown sharply and cities have become increasingly strategic for global capital and 2 marginalized people have found their voice and are making claims on the city as well This joint presence is further brought into focus by the sharpening of the distance between the two These joint presences have made cities a contested terrain The global city concentrates diversity Its spaces are inscribed with the dominant corporate culture but also with a multiplicity of other cultures and identities notably through immigration The slippage is evident the dominant culture can encompass only part of the city And while corporate power inscribes noncorporate cultures and identities with otherness thereby devaluing them they are present everywhere The immigrant communities and informal economy in cities such as New York and Los Angeles are only two instances The space constituted by the global grid of global cities a space with new economic and political potentialities is perhpas one of the most strategic spaces for the formation of new types including transnational identities and communities This is a space that is both place centered in that it is embedded in particular and strategic sites and it is transterritorial because it connects sites that are not geographically proximate yet intensely connected to each other It is not only the transmigration of capital that takes place in this global grid but also that of people both rich i e the new transnational professional workforce and poor i e most migrant workers and it is a space for the transmigration of cultural forms for the reterritorialization of local subcultures An important question is whether it is also a space for a

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    ed Culture Globalization and the World System Contemporary Conditions for the Representation of Identity Current Debates in Art History 3 Department of Art and Art History State University of New York at Binghamton 1991 Hondagneu Sotelo Pierrette 1994 Gendered Transitions Berkeley University of California Press The Journal of Urban Technology Special Issue Information Technologies and Inner City Communities Vol 3 nr 1 9Fall 1995 King A D Urbanism Colonialism and the World Economy Culture and Spatial Foundations of the World Urban System The International Library of Sociology London and New York Routledge 1990 King A D ed 1996 Representing the City Ethnicity Capital and Culture in the 21st Century London Macmillan Paul L Knox and Peter J Taylor eds 1995 World Cities in a World System Cambridge UK Cambridge University Press Richard T LeGates and Frederic Stout eds 1996 The City Reader London and New York Routledge Noyelle T And Dutka A B International Trade in Business Services Accounting Advertising Law and Management Consulting Cambridge MA Ballinger Publishing 1988 Sassen Saskia 1996 Losing Control Sovereignty in an Age of Globalization New York Columbia University Press 2000 The Global City New York London Tokyo New Updated Edition Princeton University Press 2000a Cities in a World Economy New Updated Edition Pine Forge Sage Press 1998 Globalization and its Discontents NY New Press Short John R and Y Kim 1999 Globalization and the City Essex Longman Taylor Peter J World cities and territorial states the rise and fall of their mutuality In Knox and Taylor eds op cit pp 48 62 Wallerstein I Culture as the Ideological Battleground of the Modern World System in Mike Featherstone ed Global Culture Nationalism Globalization and Modernity London Newbury Park and Delhi Sage 1990 Yaeger Patricia 1996 The Geography of Identity Michigan University of Michigan Press BIOGRAPHY

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