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    Hong Kong among others But this geography now also includes cities such as Bangkok Taipei Sao Paulo and Mexico City Sassen 2000b The intensity of transactions among these cities particularly through the financial markets trade in services and investment has increased sharply and so have the orders of magnitude involved e g Noyelle and Dutka 1988 Knox 1995 At the same time there has been a sharpening inequality in the concentration of strategic resources and activities between each of these cities and others in the same country Alongside these new global and regional hierarchies of cities is a vast territory that has become increasingly peripheral increasingly excluded from the major economic processes that are seen as fueling economic growth in the new global economy Formerly important manufacturing centers and port cities have lost functions and are in decline not only in the less developed countries but also in the most advanced economies Similarly in the valuation of labor inputs the overvalorization of specialized services and professional workers has marked many of the other types of economic activities and workers as unnecessary or irrelevant to an advanced economy There are other forms of this segmented marking of what is and what is not an instance of the new global economy For instance the mainstream account about globalization recognizes that there is an international professional class of workers and highly internationalized business environments due to the presence of foreign firms and personnel What has not been recognized is the possibility that we are seeing an internationalized labor market for low wage manual and service workers or that there is an internationalized business environment in many immigrant communities These processes continue to be couched in terms of immigration a narrative rooted in an earlier historical period This signals that there are representations of

    Original URL path: http://www.dublinpact.ie/conferencedetails/ConferenceReview/speakers/saskiasassen/saskiasassen3.html (2015-10-30)
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    a country or the world Because the network is global does not mean that it all has to happen at the global level Current uses of digital media in this new type of cross border political activism suggest very broadly two types of digital activism one that consists of actual city centered or rural community centered for that matter activist groups who connect with other such groups around the world The second type of digital network centered politics is one that does most of its work in the digital network and then may or may not converge on an actual terrain for activism as was the case of Seattle with the WTO meeting Much of the work and the political effort is centered on the transactions in the digital network Organizing against the Multilateral Agreement on Investmnet was largely a digital event But when these digital political actions hit the gound they can do so very effectively especially in the concentrated places that cities are Current uses of digital media in this new type of cross border political activism suggest very broadly two types of digital activism one that consists of actual city centered or rural community centered for that matter activist groups who connect with other such groups around the world The second type of digital network centered politics is one that does most of its work in the digital network and then may or may not converge on an actual terrain for activism as was the case of Seattle with the WTO meeting Much of the work and the political effort is centered on the transactions in the digital network Organizing against the Multilateral Agreement on Investmnet was largely a digital event But when these digital political actions hit the gound they can do so very effectively especially in the concentrated places that cities are The cross border network of global cities is a space where we are seeing the formation of new types of global politics of place which contests corporate globalization The demonstrations by the anti globalization network have signaled the potential for developing a politics centered on places understood as locations on global networks This is a place specific politics with global span It is a type of political work deeply embedded in people s actions and activities but made possible partly by the existence of global digital linkages Further it is a form of political and institution building work centered in cities and networks of cities and in non formal political actors We see here the potential transformation of a whole range of local conditions or institutional domains such as the household the community the neighborhood the local school and health care entities where women confined to domestic roles for instance remain the key actors From being lived or experienced as non political or domestic these places are tranformed into microenvironments with global span What I mean by this term is that technical connectivity will create a variety of links with other similar local

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    infrastructure to be maintained for future generations a part of the European network of cities and regions in order to upgrade cities as dynamic poles of development within the European Union with the main focus on our Eastern neighbouring cities and regions Now let me outline the structure of the Strategy Plan which consists of five strategic foci 1 Playing an active role in Europe and enhancing regional co operation please be reminded that the first EU Urban Forum took place in Vienna 1998 due not only to Austria s presidency but also to Vienna s active role in urban working groups such as the Eurocities network Vienna s partnership with our neighbouring cities and regions in the East Brno Györ and foremost Bratislava aims at creating a Euroregion With two neighbouring federal Austrian Länder we find ourselves already in the Vienna region These co operations not only lead to a strong region which better faces globalisation and competition yet also helps to tackle common problems traffic sub urbanisation and environment just to name a few Let us not forget the overall important human factor people are brought together again People who were separated for forty years In this context let me make a few words about traffic Vienna has an excellent 1 000 km long public transport system with buses trams and five subway lines some of them are being extended to the outskirts of the city Vienna and the whole region around the city are covered by the Eastern Region Transportation Association Verkehrsverbund Ost Region The Danube harbour is an important inland water port Vienna International Airport the European hub for Eastern bound flights As a heritage of the empire Vienna still has five train stations and no direct connection from West to East hence passengers have to

    Original URL path: http://www.dublinpact.ie/conferencedetails/ConferenceReview/speakers/DrWendelinWanka/wendelinwanka3.html (2015-10-30)
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    traditional role of Local Government as exclusive provider and manager of social housing is coming to an end There are better models including Housing Associations Co operatives and Partnership arrangements which will become more visible in future Institutional Arrangements We have seen extraordinary change over the last decade Ten years ago finding a job was one of the most acute problems facing society Finding a job as an issue has been replaced by the difficulties of finding a home and getting from there to work Much of the pressure we experience has built up over a very short period The Dublin Transportation Initiative was set up ten years ago the Strategic Planning Guidelines are only two years old Government plans for a Greater Dublin Authority are essential to at a minimum bring land use planning and transportation under one umbrella a basic requirement which we have never had How this can be achieved at Government Department level presents other problems which may remain to be addressed by an incoming government Conclusion The fact remains that the Dublin City Region now competes in the premier league of European Cities We don t compete exclusively in terms of wealth or size we

    Original URL path: http://www.dublinpact.ie/conferencedetails/ConferenceReview/speakers/John%20Fitzgerald/johnfitzgerald3.html (2015-10-30)
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    significant public investment from the Government national plan If successfully adapted to local needs this could provide the means for a more widespread and targeted approach over the next decade This new integrated approach offers a major challenge to how the state agencies have used their budgets to date It will take ten years of major investment to reverse the past decades of neglect If it is to survive this approach requires active political support in an era when the dominant ideology is to reduce public investment in essential services The most effective way to address these acute problems directly is through the community and voluntary sector in collaboration with the statutory providers However the main task remains i e how to target and deliver services and resources efficiently and in such a way that the underlying individual problems are solved and the people effected are able to improve their quality of life While more money is part of the solution I would suggest that the future inclusion of the family or individual in a supportive community is much more important Local government restructuring versus local development The third issue to be examined is the social and political organisation structures in the city This is the primary means to ensure future participation of the citizens and to enable local influence and control of policies and resources The issue here increasingly is the debate between direct participative democracy and electoral democracy The recent approach to the reform of local government and reorganisation of the state structures does not meet the needs of either approach and is likely to have a negative impact on the potential for developing Dublin in a holistic manner Despite rhetoric to the contrary I would suggest that much of the reform of local government is shaped by an obsession with retaining control in the centre at government department level This reduces the effectiveness of the local authorities and is ridiculous when dealing with a city the size of Dublin Local government restructuring concentrates primarily on the role of local authorities and proposed integration with the local development sector It is also about enhancing the position of the elected representatives and the electoral system in general This new direction is a mistake if the intention is to promote inclusiveness at a local level through increased participation in order to provide more say in decision making Despite the trend elsewhere there is a continuous tendency in Ireland towards centralism In contrast the devolution commission identified all of the state agencies and structures as needing reform and more effective delegation to work collectively to respond to local need The trend now is opposite to this Despite the best efforts of the people working in the state agencies at local level due to their regional structures the state institutions have great difficulty in dealing at a very localised community level While this is understandable it makes strategic planning difficult at both the macro and micro level in the city In addition

    Original URL path: http://www.dublinpact.ie/conferencedetails/ConferenceReview/speakers/Dave%20Connolly/daveconnolly3.html (2015-10-30)
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    and urban sprawl Development of cities usually takes the form of outward expansion of the built up area During this process adjacent towns and villages are subsumed by suburban development often with negative consequences in terms of sustainability New infrastructure needs to be constantly provided to service peripheral expansion and scarce land resources are used often in a wasteful fashion known popularly in the English dictum as urban sprawl Peripheral expansion of urban areas is often characterised by á Suburbanisation of residential functions usually resulting in low rise low density housing development This form of development is highly wasteful of land resources and causes problems in terms of traffic congestion due to commuting á Decentralisation of commercial activity During the past four decades commercial activity has decentralised outwards from the traditional central business district of cities to suburban locations This trend has been most recently exemplified by the decentralisation of offices to suburban business parks and has implications for transportation systems á Dispersal of population to the hinterland of metropolitan regions This activity results in the rapid development of towns and villages at ever further distances from major cities The net result of this trend is unsustainable commuting patterns and transportation difficulties The negative effects of peri urban development require an integrated planning approach and the related INTERREG IIC Metropolitan Fringe Areas project is currently investigating the problems of uncontrolled urbanisation and is evaluating the practices and innovative proposals to tackle such problems The Greater Dublin Area has experienced particular problems in this regard in recent years It is recognised that metropolitan areas play a critical role in the economy of any given nation through their action as engines of growth by stimulating economic activity and dispersing the benefits of such activity through the hierarchy of lesser urban centres located

    Original URL path: http://www.dublinpact.ie/conferencedetails/ConferenceReview/speakers/BWillliams/bwilliams3.html (2015-10-30)
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    and often over valorization as illustrated in the unusually high salary increases beginning in the 1980s for top level professionals and CEOs Globalization further adds to the complexity of these services their strategic character their glamour and therewith to their overvalorization The presence of a critical mass of firms with extremely high profit making capabilities contributes to bid up the prices of commercial space industrial services and other business needs and thereby make survival for firms with moderate profit making capabilities increasingly precarious And while the latter are essential to the operation of the urban economy and the daily needs of residents their economic viability is threatened in a situation where finance and specialized services can earn super profits High prices and profit levels in the internationalized sector and its ancillary activities such as top of the line restaurants and hotels make it increasingly difficult for other sectors to compete for space and investments Many of these other sectors have experienced considerable downgrading and or displacement for example the replacement of neighborhood shops tailored to local needs by upscale boutiques and restaurants catering to new high income urban elites Inequality in the profit making capabilities of different sectors of the economy has always existed But what we see happening today takes place on another order of magnitude and is engendering massive distortions in the operations of various markets from housing to labor For instance the polarization among firms and households and in the spatial organization of the economy contribute in my reading towards the informalization of a growing array of economic activities in advanced urban economies When firms with low or modest profit making capacities experience an ongoing if not increasing demand for their goods and services from households and other firms in a context where a significant sector of the economy makes super profits they often cannot compete even though there is an effective demand for what they produce Operating informally is often one of the few ways in which such firms can survive for example using spaces not zoned for commercial or manufacturing uses such as basements in residential areas or space that is not up to code in terms of health fire and other such standards Similarly new firms in low profit industries entering a strong market for their goods and services may only be able to do so informally Another option for firms with limited profit making capabilities is to subcontract part of their work to informal operations The recomposition of the sources of growth and of profit making entailed by these transformations also contribute to a reorganization of some components of social reproduction or consumption While the middle strata still constitute the majority the conditions that contributed to their expansion and politico economic power in the post war decades the centrality of mass production and mass consumption in economic growth and profit realization have been displaced by new sources of growth The rapid growth of industries with strong concentration of high and low income jobs

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    that the editors listed themselves like this no first names no initials Isin Engin F ed 2000 Democracy Citizenship and the Global City London and New York Routledge Kunzmann K R 1994 Berlin im Zentrum europaeischer Stadtnetze Pp 233 246 Werner Suss ed Hauptstadt Berlin Band 1 Nationale Hauptstadt Europaeische Metropole Berlin Berlin Verlag Landrieu Josee May Nicole Spector Therese and Veltz Pierre ed La Ville Eclatee La Tour d Aigues Editiones de l Aube 1998 Lovink Geert and Patrice Riemens 2001 Digital City Amsterdam Local Uses of Global Networks In Sassen ed Cities and their cross border networks New York and London Routledge Low Setha M 1999 Theorizing the City Pp 1 33 in Low ed Theorizing the City New Brunswick NJ Rutgers University Press Marcuse Peter and Ronald van Kempen 2000 Globalizing Cities A New Spatial Order Oxford Blackwell Moulaert F and A J Scott 1997 Cities Enterprises and Society on the Eve of the 21st Century London and New York Pinter Peraldi Michel and Evelyne Perrin eds 1996 Reseaux Productifs et Territoires Urbains Toulouse Presses Universitaires du Mirail Salomon Ilan 1996 Telecommunications cities and technological opportunism The Annals of Regional Science 30 75 90 Sassen Saskia 2001 The Global City New York London Tokyo Princeton University Press New updated edition originally published in 1991 2000 New Frontiers Facing Urban Sociology British Journal of Sociology 51 1 January March 2000 Special Millenial Issue pp 143 159 1998 Globalization and its Discontents New York New Press Schiffer Ramos Sueli 2001 Sao Paulo Articulating a cross border regional economy In Sassen ed Cities and their cross border networks New York and London Routledge Taylor Peter J 2000 World cities and territorial states under conditions of contemporary globalization Political Geography 19 5 5 32 Veltz Pierre Mondialisation Villes et Territoires L

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