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  • The Centre For Colorectal Disease
    the distal colon lower left side tends to cause long thin faeces This is because they tend to grow in an ring shaped annular formation and thus narrow or constrict the colon This may result in obstruction The proximal colon right side is wider and cancer does not grow in the same fashion meaning that stool shape and consistency are not affected as in left sided colon cancer Cancer can also grow in other patterns such as ulcerating lesions and plaques All forms of cancer eventually penetrate the bowel wall over the course of time and may appear as firm masses of the serosal surface Some tumours produce a substance called mucin which facilitates its spread and worsens the outcome Risk Factors Diets high in animal fat and red meat low in fibre increase the risk of colorectal cancer The risk is also higher in those whose family members have developed colorectal cancer Genetic syndromes such as Peutz Jeghers syndrome Lynch HNPCC syndrome Gardner s and Turcot s syndrome all predispose to development of colon cancer Familial Adenomatous Polyposis FAP syndrome is a genetic syndrome in which there is an irregularity on the long arm of chromosome 5 100 of those with the mutation develop cancer if left untreated This syndrome can be detected at an early age in colonoscopy by visualising the development of polyps on the colon mucosa Other high risk groups include those who have previously had an abnormal growth 35 50 chance of developing more Patients suffering from ulcerative colitis are also at a higher risk Ulcerative colitis patients represent less than 1 of colon cancer patients but their cancer may be very aggressive Factors which help to lower the risk include antioxidants which neutralise free radicals and medications such as hormone replace ment therapy Certain non steroidal anti inflammatory drugs NSAIDs are also believed to lower the risk Screening Screening for colorectal cancer may be performed in the following ways Digital rectal examination For this examination the patient lies on his or her side The physician inserts a finger into the anus and assesses the muscle tone of the sphincter Then the physician advances his or her finger and palpates the inside of the rectum The physician then withdraws the finger and checks the glove for blood by performing a faecal occult blood test Up to 10 of colorectal cancer cases may be detected this way This is a slide which changes colour when faeces containing blood are smeared onto it This test is limited but may prove useful in order to decide whether further investigations are indicated Colonoscopy This procedure involves advancing a long flexible instrument endoscope into the rectum and colon The endoscope has a light and a camera at the end which transmits images of the lining of the colon onto a screen allowing abnormalities to be detected Tissue samples biopsies may be taken and certain polyps may be removed during the procedures Sigmoidoscopy Sigmoidoscopy is a similar procedure to colonoscopy However

    Original URL path: http://www.colorectal.ie/ColorectalCancer.html (2016-02-09)
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  • The Centre For Colorectal Disease
    Due to the effect of sedatives it is unsafe to drive even if you feel capable and therefore arrangements must be made for transport home after the procedure Procedure A colonoscopy is a short procedure that usually takes less than twenty five minutes A sedative is given intravenously prior to the procedure to help you relax Analgesics painkillers may also be given to minimise any discomfort These can be adjusted according to your needs You will be asked to lie on your side and to take slow deep breaths The physician will initially perform a digital rectal examination and then insert the endoscope a long flexible instrument with a camera at the tip into your rectum Air is then blown into the colon The instrument is manoeuvred through the bends of the colon using controls which bend the tip you may also be asked to change position This transmits images of the colon onto a screen Polyps discovered during the procedure may often be removed These are sent to a laboratory for analysis which determines whether they are benign or malignant Biopsies tissue samples may also be taken during the procedure Any sources of bleeding may be cauterised a method of stopping bleeding involving the burning of the affected vessel During the procedure you may feel mild cramping You can reduce the cramping by taking several slow deep breaths When the doctor has finished the endoscope is slowly withdrawn while the lining of your bowel is carefully examined After a recovery time during which the sedative wears off you will receive instructions from your physician regarding some symptoms to look out for such as blood in your stool feeling faint or dizziness and you may also be advised to modify your medications for a certain period Flatulence and abdominal cramping

    Original URL path: http://www.colorectal.ie/Colonoscopy.html (2016-02-09)
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  • The Centre For Colorectal Disease
    safe so you will not be able to eat or drink anything for at least 6 hours beforehand Also you must arrange for someone to take you home you will not be allowed to drive because of the sedatives Your physician may give you other special instructions Procedure The procedure is short taking between 20 and 40 minutes Though you are conscious during the procedure a sedative is given to help you to relax as well analgesics painkillers and a local anaesthetic spray to avoid discomfort During the procedure you are asked to swallow the endoscope which is then advanced down the gastrointestinal tract through the oesophagus stomach and into the duodenum The endoscope tranforms the images onto a screen where the physician can easily see abnormalities Biopsies tissue samples may also be taken during the procedure These are sent to a laboratory for analysis which determines whether they are benign or malignant Any sources of bleeding may be cauterised burning of the affected vessel to stop bleeding After a recovery time of 1 to 2 hours during which the sedative wears off you will receive instructions from your physcian regarding some symptoms to look out for Complications The most

    Original URL path: http://www.colorectal.ie/UpperGIEndo.html (2016-02-09)
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  • The Centre For Colorectal Disease
    much less invasive than open surgery Advantages include shorter hospitalisation reduced pain reduced scarring and lower rates of ileus intestinal stasis Contraindications This type of surgery may not be advisable for those with severe heart conditions chronic obstructive heart disease adhesions shock and certain hernias Surgery performed Many types of operations may be performed laparoscopically such as appendicectomy hernia repair Nissen fundoplication cholecystectomy bowel resection and splenectomy This site is

    Original URL path: http://www.colorectal.ie/Laparoscopy.html (2016-02-09)
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  • The Centre For Colorectal Disease
    Though you are conscious during the procedure a sedative is given to help you to relax as well analgesics painkillers and local anaesthetic to avoid discomfort You are asked to swallow the endoscope which is then advanced down the gastrointestinal tract through the oesophagus stomach and into the duodenum Air is blown into the duodenum which may result in discomfort Here the dye is injected into the the bile ducts which enter the duodenum which may cause discomfort X rays are taken during the procedure If these show narrowing stenosis of ducts a plastic stent may be inserted to improve drainage of bile If gallstones are seen these may be removed Biopsy taking tissue samples and sphincterotomy cutting into a piece of muscle to open a sphincter may also be performed The procudure lasts between 45 minutes and 2 hours Preparation To facilitate the accuracy and safety of the procedure you are required not to eat or drink anything after midnight the night before the procedure Any allergies must also be made known to the physician in order to avoid hypersensitivity reactions Due to the effect of sedatives it is unsafe to drive even if you feel capable and therefore

    Original URL path: http://www.colorectal.ie/Endoscopic.html (2016-02-09)
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